On February 20, 1962, the United States reached Earth orbit.
In principle, the development of space technology should https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ outpace the demand associated with solving pressing economic problems. The main tasks here are the creation of launch vehicles, engines, spacecraft, as well as means of support (command-measuring and launch complexes, equipment, etc.), ensuring progress in related fields of technology, directly or indirectly related to the development of astronautics.
Before flying into space, it was necessary to understand and use in practice the principle of jet propulsion, learn to make rockets, create a theory of interplanetary communications, etc.
Missile technology is not a new concept. Man went to the creation of powerful modern launch vehicles through millennia of dreams, fantasies, mistakes, searches in various fields of science and technology, the accumulation of experience and knowledge.
The principle of operation of the rocket is its movement under the action of the force of the flow of particles arising from the combustion of rocket fuel. In a rocket, ie a device equipped with a rocket engine, gases are formed due to the reaction of oxidant and fuel stored in the rocket itself. This fact makes the operation of the rocket engine independent of the presence or absence of a gaseous medium. Thus, the rocket is a strange structure that can move in airless space – space.
A special place among Russian projects in the application of the jet principle of flight is occupied by the project of NI Kibalchich, a famous Russian revolutionary who left, despite his short life (1853-1881), a deep mark in the history of science and technology. With extensive and deep knowledge of mathematics, physics and especially chemistry, Kibalchich made homemade shells and mines. The “aerobatic device project” was the result of Kibalchych’s long research work on explosives.
In fact, he first proposed not a rocket engine adapted to any existing aircraft, as did other inventors, but a completely new (rocket-dynamic) device, a prototype of modern manned spacecraft, in which the thrust of rocket engines is used for direct creating a lifting force that supports the device in flight. Kibalchich’s aircraft was to operate on the principle of a rocket!
But Kibalchich was imprisoned for assassinating Tsar Alexander II, and therefore his aircraft design was discovered only in 1917 in the archives of the police department.
Thus, by the end of the last century, the idea of using jets for flights gained great scale in Russia. And the first who decided to continue the study was our great compatriot Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935). He became interested in the jet principle of motion very early. Already in 1883 he gave a description of a ship with a jet engine, and in 1903 Tsiolkovsky for the first time in the world had the opportunity to design a scheme of a liquid rocket.
Tsiolkovsky’s ideas were widely recognized in the 1920s. And the brilliant successor of his case SP Korolev a month before the launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth said that the ideas and works of Konstantin Eduardovich will attract more and more attention with the development of missile technology, which, of course, was absolutely right.
The beginning of the space age
Forty years after the project of the aircraft created by Kibalchich was found, on October 4, 1957, the former USSR launched the world’s first artificial satellite of the Earth. The first Soviet satellite made it possible for the first time to measure the density of the upper atmosphere, to obtain data on the propagation of radio signals in the ionosphere, to work out the issues of launch into orbit, thermal regime, and other information.
The satellite was an aluminum sphere with a diameter of 58 cm and a mass of 83.6 kg with four pin antennas 2.4-2.9 m long. The sealed housing housed equipment and power sources.
The initial parameters of the orbit were:
the height of the perigee is 228 km, the height of the apogee is 947 km, the slope is 65.1º.
On November 3, the Soviet Union announced the launch of a second Soviet satellite. In a separate airtight cabin were a dog Laika and a telemetry system to record her behavior in weightlessness. The satellite was also equipped with scientific instruments to study solar radiation and cosmic rays.
On December 6, 1957, an attempt was made in the United States to launch the Avangard-1 satellite using a launch vehicle developed by the Navy Research Laboratory. After ignition, the rocket rose above the launch pad, but a second later the engines shut down and the rocket fell to the table, exploding from the impact.
On January 31, 1958, the American response to the launch of Soviet satellites was launched into orbit by the Explorer-1 satellite. In terms of size and weight, he was not a candidate for record holder. Being less than 1 m long and about 15.2 cm in diameter, it weighed only 4.8 kg.
However, its payload was attached to the fourth, last stage of the launch vehicle “Juno-1”. The satellite with the rocket in orbit had a length of 205 cm and a mass of 14 kg. It was equipped with external and internal temperature sensors, erosion and shock sensors to determine the flow of micrometeorites and a Geiger-Mueller counter to detect penetrating cosmic rays.
An important scientific result of the satellite’s flight was the discovery of radiation belts around the Earth. The Geiger-Mueller counter stopped counting when the device was already at its apogee at an altitude of 2530 km, and the height of the perigee was approximately 360 km.
On February 5, 1958, a second attempt was made in the United States to launch the Avangard-1 satellite, but it also ended in an accident, as did the first attempt. Finally, on March 17, the satellite was launched into orbit. Between December 1957 and September 1959, eleven attempts were made to launch Avangard-1 into orbit, and only three were successful.
Both satellites have contributed much to the development of space science and technology (solar panels, new data on the density of the upper atmosphere, accurate mapping of islands in the Pacific Ocean, etc.). On August 17, 1958, the first attempt was made in the United States to send a probe with research equipment from Cape Canaveral on the outskirts of the Moon. She was unsuccessful. The rocket took off and flew only 16 km. The first stage of the rocket exploded at an altitude of 77 m. On October 11, 1958, a second attempt was made to launch the lunar probe “Pioneer-1”, which also failed. The next few launches were also unsuccessful, only on March 3, 1959, “Pioneer-4” weighing 6.1 kg partially fulfilled the task: flew past the moon at a distance of 60,000 km (instead of the planned 24,000 km).
As with the launch of the Earth’s satellite, the priority in launching the first probe belongs to the USSR. On January 2, 1959, the first man-made object was launched and launched into a trajectory quite close to the Moon into the orbit of the Sun’s satellite. Thus, “Moon-1” for the first time reached the second space speed. “Moon-1” had a mass of 361.3 kg and flew near the Moon at a distance of 5500 km. At a distance of 113,000 km from Earth from a rocket stage docked to the “Moon-1” was released a cloud of sodium vapor, which formed an artificial comet. Solar radiation caused a bright glow of sodium vapor and optical systems on Earth photographed the cloud against the background of the constellation Aquarius.
“Moon-2” was launched on September 12, 1959 and made the world’s first flight to another celestial body. Devices were placed in the 390.2-kilogram sphere, which showed that the Moon did not have a magnetic field and a radiation belt.
The Moon-3 Automatic Interplanetary Station (AMS) was launched on October 4, 1959. The weight of the station was 435 kg. The main purpose of the launch was to fly around the moon and photograph its reverse side, invisible from Earth. Photographing was carried out on October 7 for 40 minutes. from an altitude of 6200 km above the moon.
April 12, 1961 at 9 o’clock. 07 min Moscow time, a tens of kilometers north of the village of Tyuratam in Kazakhstan, the Soviet Baikonur cosmodrome launched an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7, in the bow of which was a manned spacecraft “East” with Major Oleksiy Air Force on the Air Force. The launch was successful. The spacecraft was launched into orbit with an inclination of 65º, a perigee height of 181 km and an apogee height of 327 km and made one orbit around the Earth in 89 minutes.
At the 108th minute after launch, he returned to Earth, landing near the village of Smelivka, Saratov region. Thus, 4 years after the launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, the Soviet Union for the first time in the world made a manned flight into outer space.
The spacecraft consisted of two compartments. The launch vehicle, which is also an astronaut’s cockpit, was a sphere with a diameter of 2.3 m, covered with a material for thermal protection at the entrance to the atmosphere. The ship was controlled automatically, as well as by an astronaut. In flight, a similar atmosphere to the Earth was continuously maintained – a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen at a pressure of 1 atm. (760 mm Hg). “East-1” had a mass of 4730 kg, and with the last step of the launch vehicle 6170 kg. The spacecraft “East” was launched into space 5 times, after which it was announced its safety for human flight.
Four weeks after Gagarin’s flight, on May 5, 1961, Captain 3rd Rank Alan Shepard became the first American astronaut.
Although it did not reach Earth orbit, it rose above the Earth to a height of about 186 km. Shepard was launched from Cape Canaveral in the Mercury-3 spacecraft using a modified Redstone ballistic missile and spent 15 minutes in flight. 22 s. before landing in the Atlantic Ocean. He proved that a person in weightlessness can manually control a spaceship. The Mercury spacecraft was significantly different from the East spacecraft.
It consisted of only one module – a manned capsule in the form of a truncated cone 2.9 m long and a base diameter of 1.89 m. Its sealed shell of nickel alloy had a titanium sheath to protect against heat at the entrance to the atmosphere. The atmosphere inside Mercury consisted of pure oxygen at a pressure of 0.36 atm.
On February 20, 1962, the United States reached Earth orbit. The Mercury-6 spacecraft, piloted by Lt. Col. John Glenn, was launched from Cape Canaveral.