Bargain hunters and globalization are increasing the spread of product and brand piracy.
These include the triple and quadruple test, as well as the first trimester screening and the integrated screening, triple and quadruple test
This test is carried out in the 14th to 18th week of pregnancy and is considered controversial because of its comparatively uncertain results. On the basis of the concentration of three hormones in the mother’s blood, an attempt is made to draw conclusions about the presence of chromosomal disorders, as well as incorrect development of the central nervous system. If a fourth specific hormone is added to this, it is referred to as a quadruple test. First trimester screening
This procedure combines the values of the neck transparency measurement with the laboratory values of two components from the mother’s blood. Integrated screening
Here, various biochemical blood parameters are tested in their respective concentrations and then an attempt is made to draw conclusions from them.
Is television to blame when parents are 13-year-olds in the US? Scientists have found a link between the consumption of adult TV content and pregnancies among minors. However, the study is difficult to interpret.
Television habits play a role
The headline on the magazine’s website "Time" leaves no doubt: "Sex on TV drives more teenage pregnancies, one study found". Researchers at the staunchly conservative think tank Rand Corporation interviewed around 2,000 adolescents in the United States three times between 2001 and 2004. Among other things, it was about their television habits.
Sex and the City: Irresponsible Enlightenment
Result: Those who consume a particularly large number of programs with sexual content are named series such as Sex and the City but also comedy programs have twice the risk of being affected by an unwanted pregnancy. The study published in the November issue of the trade journal "Pediatrics" appears, proves this connection for the first time, explained Anita Chandra, head of the research group. "Adolescents get a lot of information about sex on TV – but the programs usually don’t talk about the risks and responsibilities involved in sex."
The interpretation of the investigation, how about "Time" does, however, is questionable. After all, the scientists only found one correlation. If sex TV users get pregnant more often, this may also be due to the fact that they are simply more interested in the opposite sex and eroticism and therefore watch relevant programs more often and have sex earlier than others.
Study with gaps
"We don’t show a cause and effect relationship" confirmed co-author Steven Martino from Rand Corporation Pittsburgh in an interview with SPIEGEL ONLINE. Not only did they record their TV habits, but also demographic differences and behavioral problems, for example, but it did "sure are factors that we haven’t investigated". In addition, the researchers do not want to be held responsible if journalists overinterpret the results: "We cannot influence the headlines in newspapers" explained Martino. "It’s beyond our control."
Lots of teen mothers in the US
One thing is undisputed: In an international comparison, a particularly large number of teenagers become parents in the USA, although the number of pregnancies has fallen sharply since 1991. For every thousand women between the ages of 15 and 19, 53 children were born in the USA in 2003, in Germany there were only eleven and in Spain only six. The abstinence campaigns started mainly by religious people in the USA have hardly had any effect in recent years.
If you compare the relatively revealing television programming in Western Europe with the more prudish programs of US TV stations, the question immediately arises why the thesis of sex TV making pregnant women in the old world is not correct. After all, this is where teen pregnancy rates are particularly low. "We would certainly not explain the differences between Europe and the USA with the TV program" explained Martino.
Different sex education in the USA and Europe
"There are big cultural differences, including in sex education at school and how parents talk to their children about the topic." Nevertheless, the researcher considers the basic thesis of the study to be correct: "We believe that sexual content matters on television." At the same time, Martino emphasized that education is extremely important. "When kids learn all about sex from TV alone, that’s a problem."
It’s not just television to blame
Incidentally, the research by the Rand Corporation completely left out the subject of the Internet. Amazingly, sexual content is easily accessible there. In addition, the media consumption of young people has shifted more and more away from television towards the Internet in recent years. "We should also consider the role of magazines, the internet and music" said study director Anita Chandra.
Parents have a duty too?
Against this background, the researchers’ recommendations seem at least partially naive: TV stations should not only address sex, but also possible consequences such as pregnancy and infection with sexually transmitted diseases. Parents should limit their children’s access to sex-themed programs and talk to them about the consequences of intercourse. And paediatricians should talk to young people about contraception.
The target group is getting younger and younger: New TV offers should appeal to children from six months – in other words, babies. "BabyTV" and "BabyFirst" are aimed at children up to three years of age. Both programs have been offered by Unitymedia from Cologne since the end of October 2008 in the digital cable network of North Rhine-Westphalia and Hesse. Kabel BW provides "BabyTV" available to all cable households in Baden-Württemberg since 2005. A spokesman for Kabel BW in Heidelberg says there are no figures on how many use the program. Media and development educators are extremely critical of the programs.
Sensory impressions not sufficient
"This is gross nonsense" says Fabienne Becker-Stoll, head of the State Institute for Early Education in Munich. The early childhood brain is still very immature. In order for new connections to arise in the brain and for a child to learn, it needs the simultaneous activation of different areas of the brain. In addition to sensory impressions, emotions and interaction are particularly important. "The optimal training for the baby brain is a sensitive interaction with the main caregiver" explains Becker-Stoll.
Can Baby TV Promote Development?
The baby programs on TV, on the other hand, rely on colorful pictures. The children are sung songs and words, they are asked to guess which animals are hiding behind noises and assign objects. And they can watch babies play with each other. All of this should promote their development. "BabyFirst" refers on its homepage to an advisory body with child psychologists and development experts who support the program.
TV from three makes sense
"Of course, babies also react to stimuli from the television such as sounds and colors" says Nadine Kloos, media educator at "JFF – Institute for Media Education in Research and Practice" in Munich. "But what is behind it, what messages are being conveyed, children of this age do not yet understand." Because for that they would have to be able to abstract. It was only from the age of three that children began to understand age-appropriate television messages. Then you could also follow short programs, explains the editor of the program consultancy "Flimmo".
The TV does not respond
For early childhood learning, it is important that the child is active and receives prompt reactions, ashleymadison explains Becker-Stoll. In their interaction with their parents, children experienced just that: they act and their parents react – with a smile, comfort or movement. But the television doesn’t do anything. "If the child turns away, it won’t go out."
Even if the programs don’t encourage development, they can at least entertain. But Becker-Stoll is also critical of this: "The images, colors and sounds overwhelm the child. If it can, it will eventually turn away." However, it cannot escape the sounds and images.
No babysitter substitute
According to Becker-Stoll, the TV programs are therefore not suitable as a short-term babysitter when the mother is doing other things. "I know the dilemma" says the mother of two. "You have to get support with young children in good time. But the baby programs are a deceptive solution." That doesn’t mean that babies are never allowed to sit in front of the television, says Becker-Stoll: "If the whole family is watching the sandman with the older sibling and the baby is sitting on the mother’s lap, that’s perfectly fine."
Plagiarism and counterfeiting are neither compliments nor petty offenses. On the contrary: they can even destroy jobs. That is why Aktion Plagiarius awards a negative price for the most daring copies every year.
Bargain hunters and globalization are increasing the spread of product and brand piracy. Many plagiarisms are produced cheaply and under poor working conditions. In addition, according to the Aktion Plagiarius association, they often look deceptively similar to the original, but "pose enormous security risks". Therefore, the negative price was already for the 44th time "Plagiarism" awarded.
Background to "Plagiarism"
The negative price launched by the designer Rido Busse "Plagiarism" has been awarded to manufacturers and dealers of particularly bold plagiarism and forgeries since 1977. The award says nothing about whether a counterfeit product is legally permitted or illegal. Rather, the goal is "to raise public awareness of the business practices of product and brand piracy and to sensitize industry, politics and consumers to the problem". In this way, agreements between original and plagiarism manufacturers could often be reached.
Plagiarius Prize Winner 2020
Photo series with 6 pictures
Who has the negative price "Plagiarism" Won 2020?
This year the jury awarded four main prizes – with two third places – and six awards of equal rank. A total of 23 plagiarism suggestions were submitted.
1st prize: Nicer Dicer Quick kitchen cutter
Original on the left, forgery on the right: In the first place, not only the design of the product and packaging was copied, but also the company name. (Source: Aktion Plagiarius e.V.)
Original: Genius GmbH, Limburg, Germany Counterfeit: Ningbo A-Biao Plastic Industry & Trade Co., Ltd., PR China
In this forgery, not only the design of the product and packaging are copied, but also the company and product name. Only the genius logo was retouched. However, it is noticeable that the cutting blades are blunt and not as firmly anchored as on the original. There is a risk of injury from the blades breaking out.
2nd prize: Kayser cream capsules
Original on the left, forgery on the right: Here, too, the product and packaging are copied 1: 1. (Source: Aktion Plagiarius e.V.)
Original: Kayser Berndorf GmbH, Vienna, Austria Counterfeit: Sales: Female Foods BV, Woerden, Netherlands (liquidated)
This forgery uses the Kayser logo and also copies the product and packaging. The plagiarism also does not meet any quality or security standards. For example, the cap of a counterfeit capsule exploded under normal storage conditions, reports Aktion Plagiarius.