In 1840, Nicholas I abolished the First Lithuanian Statute.
In 1825 there was a Decembrist uprising, and in 1830 – 1831 – the Polish uprising.
Along buy compare and contrast essay online with other measures aimed at strengthening the position of tsarism in the Right Bank Ukraine, the Magdeburg Law was abolished in 1834. All judicial and administrative functions of management passed to the city council, which he headed "mayor"… The first mayors were merchants Dekhtyarev, and then Eliseev.
In 1840, Nicholas I abolished the First Lithuanian Statute. Instead, all-Russian laws came into force in Kyiv.
Ukrainians in the Crimea (XV – early XX century.). Abstract
Since the period of existence of the ancient Kyiv state, and even earlier, among the inhabitants of the Crimea there has always been a significant number of Ukrainians and their immediate ancestors of the Rus
The role played by the Taurian Peninsula since ancient times – that is, the role of a kind of key, economic and political, in relation to the boundless and unusually rich expanses of Eastern Europe – was the main reason that the peninsula at the turn of the first millennium AD ceased to be a monoethnic territory.
Later, new conquests (and on the peninsula power changed frequently, in the end, mostly coexisted state formations of different ethnic groups) eliminated the previous dominant nations, turning them into dependent. Thus arose a noticeable ethnic mosaic of the Crimea, especially in the mountains and in its shopping centers – factories.
I must, however, say that "one hundred national" Crimea, which is still fondly trumpeted by covert Communist and post-Communist propaganda, has never been in nature. Economically active zones, zones of brisk trade around the world, have always been characterized by polyethnicism, both in ancient and medieval and modern times – and Crimea has never been an exceptional feature, as generously paid agitators and, unfortunately, people try to prove. who consider themselves historians.
Among the inhabitants of Taurian shopping centers, the East Slavic population – the ancestors of modern Ukrainians – can be traced, according to historical sources, to the existence of the Kyivan state (here I abstract from Oziv Rus, whose ethnic composition requires careful study) …
The Mongol-Tatar conquest of the peninsula caught the Ukrainian (Russian – in the ethnic terminology of the time) population in many cities. This population is mentioned in contemporary sources – Arab, in particular; for somewhat later times – the time of the Genoese colonization – also in sources in Latin and Gaelic.
According to Ibn al-Asir, Russian merchants and the rich who lived in Chersonesos fled after the battle of Kalka in 1224 to Asia Minor. Ibn abd-az-Zahver, writing about the 60’s of the XIII century, speaks of the city of Crimea (Solkhat, modern Old Crimea), inhabited by Kipchaks, Rus and Alans.
The charter of Kafa in 1316 mentions the Russian church behind the city walls, emphasizing that it has been there since ancient times. Spanish author Pero Tafur wrote in the fourteenth century. that in Kafa live such Christian nations as the Russians (he puts them in the first place), Mingrelians, Abazgi, Circassians, Bulgarians and Armenians.
The nautical charts of the Black Sea depict a lighthouse called Cape Tarkhankut "Russian" (map of 1553, but the information is clearly of the previous century). In 1475, when the Turks captured Kafu, among the robbed and partially sold into slavery of the inhabitants of the source – the so-called. Tuscan anonymous – mentions Wallachians, Poles, Russians, Georgians and Circassians.
Similar mentions in written sources of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. there are about twenty. Given the general poverty of descriptive and other sources about Crimea at the time, they show that almost every major city center in Crimea was inhabited by Ukrainians, had their own churches and, according to medieval regulations in the cities of the West and East, had their own separate districts.
Since the Genoese times of the Crimea, the Italian archives have preserved quite rich documentation – to a large extent, these are the records of trade transactions, among which there are often names that can be considered the names of Ukrainian merchants of the Crimea. These protocols, which have been gradually published by Italian scholars since the 1960s, deserve much attention from Ukrainian scholars.
If in Italy there are still quite large layers of documents from the time of the Genoese possessions in Crimea, the documentation of the next – Tatar period in the history of Crimea was simply maliciously destroyed by Russian troops and Russian authorities since the mid-eighteenth century , when it was mostly burned Bakhchisaray Khan’s archive, until the 40-50’s of our century, when the remains of documents were lost, information about which we have from the end of the XIX century. – 30’s of our century.
It is much easier to invent false pseudo-historical constructions without sources than to use a true source base objectively. In contrast, in such a supposedly backward Asian country as Turkey, there are huge archival materials about the Turkish southern part of Crimea, among which it will be possible to make more than one discovery about the Ukrainians of the late medieval southern coast.
Tatar attacks on the cities of Crimea in the pre-Genoese and Genoese epochs (hence, from the second half of the 13th century to 1475) also inflicted heavy losses on Ukrainian urban colonies. However, even Turkish rule, which, as I have already mentioned, began with the pogroms of the urban population, in principle for almost two centuries did not violate the rights of the Ukrainian quarters of cities. In Kafa, for example, small plots (magalas) with their church (because this was the principle of the division of cities into national quarters during Turkish rule) were preserved in the sixteenth – first half of the seventeenth century.
In 1545 there were – in the Ukrainian section – 27 yards, in 1638 – 12. When in the 20s of the seventeenth century. A Dominican mission began to work in Kafa, and it turned out that a monk who knew their language was needed for contacts with local Ukrainians. The Dominicans escorted such a monk. Somewhere in the 1740s, it seems that the free Ukrainians of Kafa (one must think that they were merchants and artisans) suffered a catastrophe – apparently, they were Islamized and Turkified by force. In any case, the mention of the Ukrainian quarter of Kafa from the middle of the seventeenth century. and further not yet found.
In addition to these small Ukrainian colonies in shopping centers, which consisted of completely free people, to the Crimea since the second half of the fourteenth century, and especially since the end of the fifteenth century, when the Crimean Khanate became a vassal of the Turkish sultan, more and more Ukrainians captive slaves. It is known that the Crimean Khanate turned the attacks on Ukrainian lands, the main purpose of which was to capture Yasir, into a kind of fishing. Radios took place almost every year, and sometimes two or three times a year.
During the XV-first half of the XVII century. Tatars (not only Crimean, but also Budzhak and other steppe hordes from the Northern Black Sea coast), as well as Turks killed and deported about 2-2.5 million people from Ukraine. We must assume that at least half of these people (the rest were sold outside the Crimea) settled on the peninsula.
The life of Ukrainian slaves was very difficult, they were treated with great cruelty, although there were times when they lived a little better. Mortality among slaves was very high. Men were hired to work in agriculture, they became slaves-servants in the cities (also the inhabitants were not Muslims but Christians). Women went to harems; men were often castrated. According to Mykhailo Lytvyn, the Lithuanian ambassador to the Crimean khan (in the 1960s), slaves lived worse than dogs. Slavery lasted at different times – sometimes until death, but there is information that in a certain period lasted only 6 years, later slaves were released, but without the right to leave the country.
A large number of Ukrainian slaves caused significant changes in Crimea in anthropological, demographic, and even cultural and religious terms. The predominance of Ukrainian women in harems and their existence as concubines led to the emergence of a large stratum of the mixed population, the so-called. tums. Mongrel children could also be sold, but one way or another, this process led to anthropological changes that were noticeable until recently. Tatars from aristocratic families – city dwellers gradually lost the features of the Mongol and Turanian races, getting closer and closer to the racial types characteristic of Ukrainians. (Such an observation was made in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by A. Krymsky.
In ethno-demographic terms, the residence of a huge number of Ukrainians – albeit enslaved – in the Crimea led to the fact that in the second half of the seventeenth century. Ukrainians became the main inhabitants of the Crimea. This can be statistically proved in relation to the Crimean Khanate – this can be assumed in relation to the Turkish part (Kafian eyalet) of Crimea.
It is a very common mistake nowadays to consider Crimea as one political entity in the past – the Crimean Khanate. In fact, Crimea was divided into two almost equal – in terms of population – parts: the Crimean Khanate with its capital in Bakhchisarai and the port of Gezleve (modern Evpatoria) and the Turkish province – Eyalet with its center in Kafa. The province included the entire southern coast of the peninsula with cities such as Ak-Yar, now Sevastopol, Balaklava, Mangup, Alupka, Yalta, Alushta, Sudak, Kerch, Yeni-Kale.
According to the census of the Crimean Khanate of 1666-1667 (its data were recorded in the memoirs of the Turkish traveler Evliya bielebi), 187 thousand Crimean Tatars and 20 thousand free representatives of other nationalities (Armenians, Greeks, Jews, Karaites) had 920 thousand slaves, mostly, for the time being, Ukrainians. In other words, about four-fifths of the population of the Crimean Khanate were Ukrainians. The situation in the Turkish part of Crimea was probably similar. In other words – in absolute numbers in the second half of the seventeenth century. there were more Ukrainians in Crimea than today.
From the ethno-demographic point of view, we can talk about the Ukrainian Crimea in the second half of the seventeenth century. In addition to anthropological consequences, there were also cultural and ideological ones. The same Evliya bielebi writes that in Akmechet (modern Simferopol) there were dervishes, Muslim monks who told him about Mary, the mother "the prophet of the Cossacks" Jesus.